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“Libya Is An Islamic State.” Knox Reads (Knox College). February 13, 2012 (http://knoxreads.knox.edu/?p=79).

“Moammar Gadhafi, who lived and died in violence.” CNN Opinion. CNN World. October 20, 2011 (http://www.cnn.com).

“‘Optimistic’ Signs for democracy.” 5 voices: After Gadhafi, then what?. CNN World [op-ed]. September 17, 2011 (http://www.cnn.com).

“Libyan Myths and Realities.” Royal Danish Defence College. August 2011 (http://www.forsvaret.dk/fak/eng).

“Why Democracy has a good chance in Libya.” CNN Opinion [op-ed]. August 30, 2011 (http://www.cnn.com/opinion).

“Forging a National Identity.” Room for Debate: A Running Commentary on the News. New York Times [op-ed]. August 23, 2011 (http://www.nytimes.com).

“The February 17th Revolution in Libya.” Revolution and Political Transformation in the Middle East, Agents of Change, Volume 1. Middle East Institute. August 2011 (http://www.mei.edu).

Reframing the Libyan Narrative.” Real Instituto Elcano ARI [Madrid, Spain]. May 23, 2011 (http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org).

Libya: The Road Ahead.” The Montreal Review [Montreal, Canada]. April 2011 (http://www.themontrealreview.com).

Why Tribes Matter.” The New York Times. February 23, 2011 (http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate).

“Fagih, Ahmed Ibrahim (1932- ).” Dictionary of African Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

“King Idris I (1890-1983).” Dictionary of African Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

“Matar, Hisham (1970- ).” Dictionary of African Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

“Qaddafi Family.” Dictionary of African Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

“Libya: Cracks in the Qadhafi Foundation.” Arab Reform Bulletin (January 2011).http://carnegieendowment.org/ar

“The Slow Pace of Reform Clouds the Libyan Succession.” Real Instituto Elcano. March 12, 2010.http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org

“Migration is not a bilateral issue.” Pambazuka News 464, January 7, 2010, http://www.pambazuka.org

“Les habits neufs du colonel Kadhafi.” Alternatives Internationales 7 (December 2009): 96-97.

“Armenian Genocide.” The World Book Encyclopedia (October 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“Erdogan, Recep Tayyip.” The World Book Encyclopedia (October 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“Gül, Abudllah.” The World Book Encyclopedia (October 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“Chad.” The World Book Encyclopedia (May 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“Mubarak, Hosni.” The World Book Encyclopedia (May 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“Mubarak, Suzanne.” The World Book Encyclopedia (May 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“Niger.” The World Book Encyclopedia (May 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“Nile River.” The World Book Encyclopedia (May 2009). http://www.worldbookonline.com

“A New U.S. Relationship with Libya?” Foreign Policy in Focus. March 27, 2009.http://fpif.org/fpiftxt/5999

“A Defining Moment for the ‘King of Kings.’” Arab Reform Bulletin (March 2009).
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/ar

“The 438 Million Bribe.” Forbes. January 22, 2009. http://www.forbes.com

“Qaddafi’s Old Theories Facing New Realities.’” Arab Reform Bulletin (December 2008).http://www.carnegieendowment.org/ar

“Libya.” Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World: 1750 to Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

“The Green Book.” Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World: 1750 to Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

“Bashar al-Asad.” Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2007.

“Hafiz al-Asad.” Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2007.

“Mu’ammar al-Qaddafi.” Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2007.

“Libya: The Limits to Reform.” Arab Reform Bulletin (July 2007).

“A Real Clean Break in the Middle East.” Right Web Analysis. September 14, 2006. http://rightweb.irc-online.org/rw/3508

“A Savage War of Peace.” Foreign Policy in Focus. June 1, 2006.

“Libya Marks Shift in Bush Foreign Policy.” Foreign Policy in Focus. May 26, 2006

“Deconstructing the Libya Option for Syria.” Foreign Policy in Focus. December 9, 2005

“New Syria looks, acts like old Syria.” Foreign Policy in Focus. June 20, 2005.

“Syria’s Baath Party Congress a watershed for President Asad.” Foreign Policy in Focus. June 2, 2005.

“Libya is the Acid Test for Bolton Nomination.” Foreign Policy in Focus. May 16, 2005.

“One Election a Democracy Does Not Make.” Foreign Policy in Focus. February 8, 2005.

“Libya.” Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2005.

“Libya.” Governments of the World: Citizen Rights and Responsibilities. Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference, 2005.

“Syria.” Governments of the World: Citizen Rights and Responsibilities. Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference, 2005.

“Libya and the United States: Elements of a Performance-Based Roadmap.” In Violence and Terrorism 05/06, 8th ed., edited by Thomas J. Badey, 55-61. Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2005.

“Blowback from Iraq War Is Global, and Growing.” Foreign Policy in Focus. December 9, 2004.

“Apply ‘Libya Model’ to Iran and Syria.” Foreign Policy in Focus. October 21, 2004.

“Lebanon No Model for Iraq.” Foreign Policy in Focus. September 15, 2004.

“Separating Libyan Facts from Bush Fiction.” Foreign Policy in Focus. September 7, 2004.

“High Time Bush Defines the Enemy.” Foreign Policy in Focus. August 2, 2004.

“Bush policies make terrorism a growth industry.” Foreign Policy in Focus. May 24, 2004.

“Sorry, Mr. President, but Iraq looks a lot like Vietnam.” Foreign Policy in Focus. April 26, 2004.

“It’s Time to Engage, Not Isolate, Syria.” Foreign Policy in Focus. March 12, 2004.

“In Iraq, Timing Is Everything.” Foreign Policy in Focus, January 13, 2004.

“Libya.” Africa Contemporary Record 27, edited by Colin Legum, B621-B635. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 2004.

“Bashar al-Asad.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Hafiz al-Asad.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Cyrenaica.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Libya.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Husayn Maziq.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Pan-Arabism.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Adrian Pelt.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Javier Pérez de Cuéllar.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Muammar al-Qaddafi.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Revolutionary Command Council.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Mubarak Abdullah al-Shamekh.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Freya Stark.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Syria.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Syrian Social Nationalist Party.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Tripolitania.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Abu Bakr Yunis Jabir.” Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed., 2004.

“Lessons from Qaddafi.” Foreign Policy in Focus. March 14, 2003.

“Setting a New Course in Iraq.” The Diplomat (Summer/Fall 2003): 5.

“Libyan Terrorism: The Case against Gaddafi.” Contemporary Review 261, 1523 (December 1992): 294-98.

“The Republic of Tunisia.” In World Encyclopedia of Political Systems and Parties, edited by Marc Aronson, vol. 2, 2nd ed.: 1111-16. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc., 1986.

“The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.” In World Encyclopedia of Political Systems and Parties, edited by Marc Aronson, vol. 1, 2nd ed.: 685-93. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc., 1986.

“Libya’s New Foreign Policy.” Contemporary Review (July 1983): 15-18.

“The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.” In World Encyclopedia of Political Systems and Parties, edited by George E. Delury, vol. 1: 631-39. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc., 1983.

“Libya’s Foreign and Domestic Policies.” Current History 80, 470 (December 1981): 426-29 & 434-35.

“Patterns of Revolution in the Islamic World.” Knox Now and the Knox Alumnus 66, 1 (Fall/Winter 1979): 10-13.